Онлайн обучение (English Pre-Intermediate)

Plural form of nouns


Fossil records show that several thousand plants and animals have disappeared during the last 10 million years. Extinction results either from natural disasters, climatic changes, or unsuccessful competition for resources with other species. Over the course of earth’s history, the average species survives for 5-10 million years, then disappears. Nevertheless, life continues to flourish because most parent species leave behind at least one lineage equipped to exist in a changing world.

Today’s conservative rate of extinction is one species per day. The most familiar mass extinction ended 65 million years ago when the last dinosaur perished. During that period, one species disappeared every one to ten thousand years. Why is the rate so accelerated now? As our human population increases, more land is cleared for agriculture, livestock, timber, and development while resources are degraded and consumed faster than nature can replenish them.

Australia is one of 17 recognized mega diverse countries, which together hold the majority of earth’s biodiversity. The Southwest Eco region is one of only 34 recognized global biodiversity hotspots, with nearly 3000 species of native plants found nowhere else. Yet 7\% of the unique native mammals are already extinct and 20\% threatened with extinction.  Unmitigated climate change is predicted to result in the extinction of over 40\% of all native mammal, bird, reptile and amphibian species in Queensland alone.

Global warming stresses ecosystems through temperature rises, water shortages, increased fire threats, weed and pest invasions, intense storm damage and salt invasion, just to name a few. Some of Australia’s great natural icons, such as the Great Barrier Reef, are already threatened. Scientists predict that a 1.5°C temperature rise will result in 97\% of the Great Barrier Reef being bleached.

One of the worldwide environmental issues are whale and dolphin strandings that occur more often than ever.

There are many theories about why whales and dolphins sometimes swim into shallow water and end up stranding themselves on beaches in various parts of the world.

Some scientists have theorized that a single whale or dolphin may strand itself due to illness or injury, swimming in close to shore to take refuge in shallow water and getting trapped by the changing tide. Because whales are highly social creatures that travel in communities called pods, some mass strandings may occur when healthy whales refuse to abandon a sick or injured pod member and follow them into shallow water.

The other reason may be that something disrupts the whales’ navigation system, causing them to lose their bearings, stray into shallow water, and end up on the beach.

Despite the many theories, scientists have not found an answer that explains all whale and dolphin strandings. Perhaps there is no single answer.

These were only the single named problems but there are much more issues. Everyone should think about our environment and do not do anything that can be harmful for it.

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