Онлайн обучение (English Intermediate)

Present Perfect

00:10:00

The President of the U.S.A. is “chief of state”; that means he is the ceremonial head of the government. He is also chief executive and chief administrator. It is the president’s job to execute, or implement, all of the nation’s laws and treaties, which means the president runs the enormous federal government. The president is “chief diplomat,” responsible for setting American foreign policy, and “chief legislator”; over the past century, the president has played a bigger and bigger role in laying out a legislative agenda for Congress. The president is “commander-in-chief,” the head of America’s armed forces. And the president is traditionally the “chief of his party”. The President is supposed to set an example of good citizenship for the rest of the nation.

Anyone who is a natural-born citizen of the U.S.A., is at least 35 years old and is a resident of the U.S. for at least 14 years can become a President of America. The President is elected every four years.

The election of the President and the Vice President of the United States is an indirect vote in which citizens cast ballots for a slate of members of the U.S. Electoral College; these electors in turn directly elect the President and Vice President. Presidential elections occur on Election Day, the Tuesday between November 2 and 8, coinciding with the general elections of various other federal, states and local races.

The process is regulated by a combination of federal and state laws. Each state is allocated a number of Electoral College electors equal to the number of its Senators and Representatives in the U.S. Congress. Additionally, Washington D.C. is given a number of electors equal to the number held by the smallest state. U.S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College.

Due to the history of America, the method of presidential elections, including the Electoral College, was originally established in Article Two of the United States Constitution. This was a result of a compromise between those constitutional framers who wanted the Congress to choose the president, and those who preferred a national popular vote. Each state is allocated a number of electors that is equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress combined. With the ratification of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in 1969, the District of Columbia is also granted a number of electors, equal to the number of those held by the least populous state.

The modern nominating process of U.S. presidential elections currently consists of two major parts: a series of presidential primary elections and caucuses that are held in each state, and the presidential nominating conventions held by each political party. This process was never included in the United States Constitution, and thus evolved over time by the political parties to clear the field of candidates.

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